Philip Vermeulen is a Senior Lecturer at Auckland University of Technology. Before he was a Principal economist at the European Central Bank. He obtained his Ph.D. at Stanford University in 1999. He is an applied economist with a broad interest. He has published papers on a wide variety of topics: investment and financing constraints, investment and uncertainty, markups, pricing, the wealth distribution. He is a former member of the Household Finance and Consumption Network (HFCN) which was set up to collect and investigate household finance and consumption data. He was also a member of some past research networks, the Monetary Transmission Network, the Inflation Persistence Network and the Wage Dynamics Network.